¿Eran ciudadanos los afrodescendientes libres en las sociedades esclavistas? Cuba, Brasil y Estados Unidos en el siglo XIX

Jochen Kemner

Resumen


Se analiza el tema del estatus de los afrodescendientes libres en las sociedades esclavistas más pobladas de América, desde el punto de vista de los derechos políticos y sociales de súbditos y ciudadanos. Con la carta de libertad, los antiguos esclavos y sus descendientes libres adquirieron teóricamente los mismos derechos y obligaciones que la población blanca eurodescendiente. Sin embargo, por razones de “seguridad pública” y de “mantención del orden establecido”, en la práctica, se establecieron restricciones y privilegios para mantener la distancia social entre blancos y afrodescendientes. Desde una perspectiva comparada se estudianBrasil, Cuba y los Estados Unidos, las tres sociedades esclavistas más notorias en América durante el siglo XIX, y se examina este proceso tomando como objetos de análisis los derechos de libre movimiento, el acceso a la enseñanza superior, el sufragio y la propiedad.

ABSTRACT

This article addresses the status of free people of African descent in the Americas’ largest slave societies using the point of view of social and political rights of subjects and citizens. With the letter of freedom, former slaves could obtain for themselves and their freeborn descendants, in theory at least, the same rights and obligations that had been conferred to the population of European origin. However, for reasons of “public safety” and the desire to “maintain the established order”, restrictions for some and privileges for others were established in order to preserve the social distance between Whites and African-Americans. Comparing the three most notorious slave societies in the Americas during the nineteenth century, Brazil, Cuba and the United States, this article examines the right of free movement, access to higher education, as well as suffrage and property rights.


Palabras clave


ciudadanía; derechos civiles; afrodescendientes; esclavitud; citizenship; civil rights; African descent; slavery;

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29078/rp.v0i36.21

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